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Rosen Research Guides

Chicago Citation Style

Introduction

This guide is designed to get you started with the Chicago citation style. For more information, please consult the official source, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010), available in Rosen Reference (call number Z253 .U69 2010) or online as an ebook.

Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (7th ed.) (commonly called “Turabian”) is another useful source on Chicago style matters and is also available in Rosen Reference (LB2369 .T8 2007).

If you need further assistance, please contact us. As with any assignment, the Rosen Library recommends verifying assignment specifics with your professor before proceeding.


A shorter, printable version of this guide is also available:
Chicago PDF (40 KB).



In-Text Citations

  • Chicago style generally recommends that you use footnotes (notes that appear at the bottom of each page) in the text of your paper along with a Bibliography at the end of your paper. For other methods (such as parenthetical notes, etc.), please refer to the Chicago Manual.

  • Most word processing programs handle footnotes automatically, including font size and spacing. To add a footnote in Microsoft Word, place the cursor at the desired point in the text and then choose Insert Footnote from the footnote section of the References tab.

  • Because the bibliography includes the complete information about the sources cited in the footnotes, for Rosen College papers and other assignments it is recommended that a footnote contain only the last name of the author(s), a shortened form of the title, and the relevant page number(s) (or section). For example:


  •       1. Beriss and Sutton, Restaurants Book, 157-160.
          2. Bauer and McKercher, Food: The Definitive Guide, 268.

    For websites, include the last name of the author(s) of the content and a shortened form of the title. The author may be an organization or owner of the site. For example:

          1. Hilton Worldwide, "Meetings and Events."

    The Latin abbreviation ibid. (meaning "in the same place") may be used in place of the author and title when referring to the very same source as the previous note. For example:

          6. James and Baldwin, Streetwise Restaurant Management, 184.
          7. Scanlon, Restaurant Management, 98.
          8. Ibid., 204-206.
          9. James and Baldwin, Streetwise Restaurant Management, 315.

In the example above, note 8 refers to the same source (Scanlon, Restaurant Management) note 7 does, with the exception of the pages numbers being referenced. Note that the writer cannot use ibid. for note 9, because this source was referenced in note 6 and does not immediately precede it.

A note on full and shortened citations:

At the Rosen College, we recommend the use of shortened citations for most college papers and assignments.  The Chicago Manual actually recommends using both full citations (for the first mention of a source) and shortened citations (for subsequent mentions of a source), and this approach is often appropriate for theses, dissertations, book manuscripts, and other longer works.  Check with your professor if you have any doubts about which form to use.

If citing a reference using full citation, subsequent citations of the same sources already given in full should be shortened whenever possible. For example:

      1. David Beriss and David Sutton, Restaurants Book: Ethnographies of Where We Eat, 157-160.
      2. Thomas G. Bauer and Bob McKercher, eds., Food: The Definitive Guide, 268.
      3. Beriss and Sutton, Restaurants Book, 199.

Footnote number 1 (first reference to this source, full form) refers to the same source as footnote number 3 (subsequent reference to this source, shortened form).

More information regarding in-text citations can be found on pgs. 655-784 of the Chicago Manual. For specific information on shortened citations, see pgs. 667-670.


Formatting the Bibliography

  • Arrange the entries alphabetically by author (if no author is given, start with the title).

  • Use a “hanging indent” (indent the second and following lines) for each entry longer than one line.

  • The 3-em dash may be used to refer to the same author as the previous entry. To create the 3-em dash in Microsoft Word, hold down Ctrl+Alt+Minus (from number keypad). Please see working examples of this below.


Bibliography Page Layout:

  • There are two acceptable spacing methods for the bibliography section of your paper. Please ask your professor for his/her preferred method.


Method One:

According to the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual (See: pgs 59-63, Formatting 2.7), the bibliography should be double spaced throughout. For example:

Johnson, Hugh. Hugh Johnson’s Pocket Encyclopedia.

New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

———. Hugh Johnson’s Wine Companion: The

Encyclopedia of Wines, Vineyards, Winemakers.

London: Mitchell Beazley, 1989.


Method Two:

According to the Turabian guide (See: pg 375, Spacing and Indentation A.1.3), each entry should be single-spaced, while the space between entries should be double-spaced. For example:

Johnson, Hugh. Hugh Johnson’s Pocket Encyclopedia.
       New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

———. Hugh Johnson’s Wine Companion: The
       Encyclopedia of Wines, Vineyards, Winemakers.
       London: Mitchell Beazley, 1989.



Bibliographical Citations - Selected Common Source Types

The examples below are intended to show working examples of Chicago style bibliography entries for common source types. Please note, to accommodate various browser windows, narrow margins have been used in the examples. Actual page margins in your document should be set to one inch, while hanging indents should be set at half an inch.

This page is best viewed on a fully expanded browser window. If you experience viewing difficulties, a printable guide is also available: Chicago PDF (40 KB).

To cite a source type not listed below, or for more information, refer to pages 653-810 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Ros REF Z253 .U69 2010).


BOOK - One author


• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M. Title of Book, # ed. [if other than 1st].

Place: Publisher, Date.

Riewoldt, Otto. New Hotel Design, 2nd ed. New York:

Watson-Guptill Publications, 2002.

BOOK - Two or more authors


• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M., and First Last. Title of Book, # ed. [if other

    than 1st]. Place: Publisher, Date.

    Okumus, Fevzi, Levent Altinay, and Prakash K. Chathoth.

    Strategic Management for Hospitality and

    Tourism, 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann,

    2010.

BOOK - Editor


• Bibliography Form:

When no author appears on the title page, a work is listed by the name(s) of the editor(s), complier(s) or translator(s).


    Last, First M., ed. [or comp., trans.]. Title of Book, # ed.

    [if other than 1st]. Place: Publisher, Date.

    Arndt, Alice, ed. Culinary Biographies. Houston: Yes

    Press, 2006.

BOOK - Electronic Book (E-Book)


• Bibliography Form:

Citation form for books downloaded from a library, database, or bookseller.


    Last, First M., and First Last. Title of Book, # ed. [if

    other than 1st]. Place: Publisher, Date.

    Device/edition/type.

    Emerson, Chad Denver. Project Future: The Inside Story

    Behind the Creation of Disney World. Charleston,

    SC: Ayefour Publishing, 2010. Kindle edition.

    Ford, Robert C., and Cherrill P. Heaton. Managing the

    Guest Experience. Albany, NY: Delmar/Thomson

    Learning, 2000. PDF e-book.

CHAPTER FROM A BOOK OR AN ENTRY IN A REFERENCE BOOK


• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M. "Chapter Name." In Book Title, [edited by

    First M. Last], Pages. Place: Publisher, Date.

    Whorton, James C. "Vegetarianism." In Cambridge World

    History of Food, edited by Kenneth F. Kiple and

    Kriemhild Conee Ornelas, 1553-1564. Cambridge:

    Cambridge University Press, 2000.

ENTRY IN A DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPEDIA


• Notes Form:

Well-known reference books, such as common dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in the footnotes (with edition specified and full publication facts omitted), rather than in the bibliography. The abbreviation s.v. (sub verbo, meaning "under the word") is used to specify the entry heading. You may wish to verify your professor's preference for these types of sources.

    Book, ed. [if other than 1st], s.v. "heading."

    1. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, s.v. "Okra."

• Bibliography Form:

Reference books that are not well-known should be cited in the bibliography, using full citations.

Last, First M. [if known]. Book Title. # of volumes [if

    more than one]. Place: Publisher, Date.

    Smith, Andrew F. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food

    and Drink in America. 2 vols. New York: Oxford

    University Press, 2004.

JOURNAL OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE - Print



• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M. "Article Title." Journal Title volume,

    number (Date): Pages.

    Monteson, Patricia A., and Judith Singer. "Marketing

    a Resort-Based Spa." Journal of Vacation

    Marketing 10, no. 2 (2004): 282-288.

JOURNAL OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE - DOI



• Bibliography Form:

Because the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) refers to a specific article in any medium, it is preferable to a URL when citing electronic articles.

Last, First M. "Article Title." Journal Title volume,

    number (Date): Pages. doi.

    Helgadottir, Gudrun, Anna Karlsdottir, and Philip

    Long. "Celebrating the Edges of the World:

    Tourism and Festivals of the Coast and Sea."

    Event Management 14, no. 4 (2010): 257-260.

    doi:10.3727/152599510X12901814778140.

JOURNAL OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE - PURL



• Bibliography Form:

If using a URL, it is advisable to use a Permanent URL (PURL), which is static and reliable. Some databases call this a "Permalink." In the absence of a PURL, use the database ID citation referenced below.

Last, First M. "Article Title." Journal Title volume,

    number (Date): Pages. PURL.

    Dawson, Jackie, Emma J. Stewart, Harvey Lemelin,

    and Daniel Scott. "The Carbon Cost of Polar

    Bear Viewing Tourism in Churchill, Canada."

    Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18, no. 3 (2010):

    319-336. http://ezproxy.lib.ucf.edu/login?URL

    =http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct

    =true&db=hjh&AN=49147642&site=ehost-live.

JOURNAL OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE - Database ID



• Bibliography Form:

If a database that does not include a DOI or a PURL with the journal record, the database name and record ID number may be used in their place.

Last, First M. "Article Title," Journal Title volume,

    number (Date): Pages. Database name (record

    or ID #).

    McAreavey, Ruth, and John McDonagh. "Sustainable

    Rural Tourism: Lessons for Rural Development."

    Sociologia Ruralis 51, no. 2 (2011). Leisure

    Tourism Abstracts (20113125502).

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS



• Bibliography Form:

These types of unpublished sources are cited in the same manner as books, with the title appearing in quotes rather than italics.

Last, First M. "Title." Degree type thesis/dissertation,

    University/School name, year. Database (Doc ID #).

    Ballo, Mamadou. "Cultural Impacts of Tourism: The Case

    of the 'Dogon Country' in Mali." Master's thesis,

    University of Florida, 2011. ProQuest (861740461).

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE - Print


• Bibliography Form:

    Last, First M. "Article Title." Newspaper, Date.

    Donahue, Wendy. "A Feast for the Senses: Food,

    Shopping, Music Overflow During a Weekend in

    Montreal." Orlando Sentinel, May 1, 2011.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE - Electronic


• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M. "Article Title." Newspaper, Date. Persistent

    URL (if available) or Database Name and ID No.

    Clarke, Sara K., and Jason Garcia. "Local Tourism Hopes

    to Break a Record or Two." Orlando Sentinel,

    January 10, 2011. http://ezproxy.lib.ucf.edu

    /login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview

    /822926051?accountid=10003.


FILM / VIDEO / DVD


• Bibliography Form:

    Title of Film. Format. Directed by First M. Last [or

    Organization], Original release year [if applicable].

    Place: Distributor or Production Company, year

    of current release.

    Star Wars II: Attack of the Clones. DVD. Directed by

    George Lucas. Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth

    Century Fox, 2002.

    Supervisory Skill Builders: Leadership. DVD. Educational

    Institute of the American Hotel and Motel

    Association. East Lansing, MI: The Institute, 1997.

FILM / VIDEO / DVD - Special Features or Chapters


• Bibliography Form for specific indexed scenes and/or chapters:

Last, First M. [Actor, Director or Producer name(s)].

    "Title of Chapter or Special Feature." Title of

    Film, Format. Directed by First M. Last. Place:

    Distributor, Year.

    Pullman, Bill, and Alan Rickman. "Chateau Montelena:

    One Winery's Search for Excellence." Bottle Shock,

    DVD. Directed by Randall Miller. Beverly Hills, CA:

    Twentieth Century Fox, 2009.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION - Interview and Email


• Bibliography Form:

Citations for personal communications normally begin with the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication was received, followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient. Chicago states that "Unpublished interviews are best cited in the text or in the notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies" (page 744, section 14.219).  However, if you need to cite such sources, follow the guidelines below.


    • Unpublished personal interview:

    Last, First M (title/position if applicable). In discussion

    with the author, Date.

    Valastro, Buddy (owner, Carlo's Bakery). In discussion

    with the author, May 2, 2011.


    • Telephone interview:

    Last, First M (title/position if applicable). Telephone

    interview, Date.

    Sweeney, Emily (Mall of America customer service

    representative). Telephone interview, October

    22, 2004.


    • Email communication:

    Email addresses should be omitted to protect privacy.

    Last, First M. Email message to the author, Date.

    Brown, Alton. Email message to the author, February

    11, 2010.

WEBSITES


• Bibliography Form:

Last, First M. [or Organization]. "Title." Document type

    [if necessary], Organization [if different than

    author], Date. URL.

    International Hotel and Restaurant Association.

    "Advocacy." 2010. http://www.ih-ra.com

    /advocacy/.

    U.S. Census Bureau. "United States Fact Sheet."

    American Fact Finder Fact Sheet, 2005-2009.

    http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet

    ACSSAFFFacts?_submenuId=factsheet_1&_sse=on

BLOGS


• Bibliography Form:

Citations of blog entries should include the author, the name of the entry in quotation marks, the title or description of the blog, and the URL.


Last, First M. [or Organization]. "Title of entry." Name

    of blog, Date. URL.

    Fitzgerald, Tom. "May the Fourth Be With You!"

    DisneyParks Blog, May 4, 2011. http://disneyparks

    .disney.go.com/blog/.

    SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment. "Beneath the

    Surface - The Making of SeaWorld's 'One

    Ocean' - Whale Behaviors." Sea Inside (blog),

    April 28, 2011. http://www.seaworldparksblog

    .com.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND LEGAL CITATIONS


For information on citing government documents, reports, and legal cases, please see The Chicago Manual 16th edition pgs 769-784 (sections 14.281-14.317), Turabian pgs 205-215 (sections 17.9-17.100), or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Please see a Rosen librarian for further assistance with these types of citations.

BROCHURE / PAMPHLET

• Bibliography Form:

    Last, First M. or Organization. Brochure Title. Place:

    Publisher, Date.

    Rosen College of Hospitality Management. Rosen

    College of Hospitality Management. Orlando:

    University of Central Florida, 2007. Admissions

    brochure.

    Pierre Foods, Inc. Product Guide. Cincinnati, Ohio:

    Pierre Foods, 2003.

ANNUAL REPORT / 10K REPORT


• Bibliography Form:

Organization. Report Name. Date accessed, URL.

    Delta Air Lines, Inc. 2010 Annual Report. Accessed

    May 4, 2011. http://www.delta.com/about_delta

    /investor_relations/annual_report_proxy_statement/.

OTHER


To cite a source type not listed above, refer to pages 655-784 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Ros REF Z253 .U69 2010) or ask a Rosen librarian for help.

Go to: Rosen Research Guides page | Rosen Library homepage

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A printable version of this guide is also available: Chicago PDF (40 KB)


Rosen Research Guides | Hospitality Research: Chicago Style Guide

Last updated April 01, 2014 8:23:38 AM

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